Needle roller bearings have needle rollers as rolling elements. Needle roller bearings are defined where cylindrical rolling elements are classified as needle rollers if the rolling element diameter is ≦6 mm and the ratio of the rolling element diameter to the rolling element length is Dw/lw＜1:3. These bearings are known for their high load-carrying capacity and ability to operate in tight spaces with limited radial and axial clearance. Their use at high speeds is restricted.
The types of needle roller bearings we are discussing are Drawn Cup Needle Roller Bearings with Closed End, Drawn Cup Needle Roller Bearings with Open Ends, Machined Needle Roller Bearings, Aligning Needle Roller Bearings, and Inner Rings.
In this article, we will take a closer look at these different types and discuss their various characteristics.
Drawn Cup needle bearings
Drawn cup needle roller bearings are the more common type of needle bearing and are designed with a thin-walled outer ring and a needle roller and cage assembly. Full complement needle roller bearings, have the maximum number of rollers with no cage, which results in a higher load-carrying capacity.
Drawn cup needle roller bearings with open and closed ends both have a very small radial section. Drawn Cup needle roller bearings are thin walled with drawn cup outer rings and needle roller and cage assemblies which become a complete unit. The outer rings conform to the dimensional and geometrical accuracy of the housing bore during fit up.
The dimensional and geometrical accuracy of drawn cup needle roller bearings with open and or closed ends conforms to DIN618 standards. The main dimensions of the bearings correspond to DIN 618:2008 and ISO 3245:2015. Nominal dimensions of bearings applied directly to a shaft inner ring can be used if necessary.
If axial locating elements such as shoulders and snap rings are not used, the housing bore can be produced easily and particularly economically. This also allows simpler mounting and dismounting of the bearings.
Overview of needle bearing designs and structures
All types of Needle bearings are designed with a cylindrical rolling element. The needle bearings with the highest speed capability are designed with a cage where rollers are guided, which maintains spacing and reduces friction. Full Complement type needle roller bearings have rollers not separated by a cage. With only a few exceptions, the cages are made from sheet steel. Bearings with a plastic cage have the suffix “TV.”
The outer ring of a needle bearing can be stamped steel or hardened steel depending upon the type, where rollers are made from hardened steel.
Comparison with other types of roller bearings
Compared to other types of roller bearings, such as cylindrical and spherical roller bearings, needle bearings have smaller cross sections and are used in completely different applications.
Main industries and equipment in which needle roller bearings
Needle bearings such as Drawn Cup Needle Roller Bearings with Closed End, Drawn Cup Needle Roller Bearings with Open Ends, and Machined Needle Roller Bearing. Those with Aligning Needle Roller Bearings and Inner Rings are commonly used in the automotive industry, where they are used in transmissions, engines, and gearboxes. They are also used in the aerospace industry, where they are applied in aircraft engines and landing gear. In the industrial equipment industry, needle bearings are used in a wide range of applications, including printing presses, textile machinery, and machine tools.
Benefits and challenges of using needle bearings
The main benefit of using needle bearings is their high load-carrying capacity and ability to operate in tight spaces. However, they are more prone to wear and fatigue due to their high contact stresses. In applications where misalignment or shock loads are present, there may be better choices than needle bearings.
Installation and selection of needle bearings
Proper handling and storage of needle bearings are important to ensure their longevity and performance. Needle bearings should be stored in a clean and dry environment and should not be exposed to moisture or corrosive materials. During installation, it is important to ensure that the bearings are properly aligned and lubricated. The selection of the appropriate needle bearing for a specific application will depend on several factors, including the load requirements, operating conditions, and design envelope.
Needle bearings are a crucial component in industrial applications that require high radial load capacity within a limited space. By selecting the right type of needle bearing, handling, storing, and maintaining them correctly, you can ensure optimal performance and longevity of your machinery and equipment.